Press (1989). /FontDescriptor 11 0 R In the following we solve the second-order differential equation called the hypergeometric differential equation using Frobenius method, named after Ferdinand Georg Frobenius. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 458.3 458.3 416.7 416.7 are $n_i$ linearly independent solutions of the differential equation (a3). /Widths[660.7 490.6 632.1 882.1 544.1 388.9 692.4 1062.5 1062.5 1062.5 1062.5 295.1 Ferdinand Georg Frobenius (26 October 1849 – 3 August 1917) was a German mathematician, best known for his contributions to the theory of elliptic functions, differential equations, number theory, and to group theory.He is known for the famous determinantal identities, known as Frobenius–Stickelberger formulae, governing elliptic functions, and for developing the theory of biquadratic forms. /Name/F1 The Euler–Cauchy equation can be solved by taking the guess $z = u ^ { \lambda }$ with unknown parameter $\lambda \in \mathbf{C}$. (3.6) 4. 935.2 351.8 611.1] endobj 656.3 625 625 937.5 937.5 312.5 343.8 562.5 562.5 562.5 562.5 562.5 849.5 500 574.1 For the case r= 1, we have a n = a n 1 5n+ 6 = ( 1)na 0 Yn k=1 (5j+ 1) 1; n= 1;2;:::; (36) and for r= 1 5, we have a n = a n 1 5n = ( 1)n 5nn! 805.5 896.3 870.4 935.2 870.4 935.2 0 0 870.4 736.1 703.7 703.7 1055.5 1055.5 351.8 /FontDescriptor 35 0 R In this video, I introduce the Frobenius Method to solving ODEs and do a short example.Questions? 708.3 708.3 826.4 826.4 472.2 472.2 472.2 649.3 826.4 826.4 826.4 826.4 0 0 0 0 0 Frobenius’ method for solving u00+ b(x) x u0+ c(x) x2 u = 0 (with b;canalytic near 0) is slightly more complicated when the indicial equation ( 1) + b(0) + c(0) = 0 has repeated roots or roots di ering by an integer. This could happen if r 1 = r 2, or if r 1 = r 2 + N. In the latter case there might, or might not, be two Frobenius solutions. Computation of the polynomials $p _ { j } ( \lambda )$. << endobj in the domain $\{ z \in \mathbf{C} : | z | < \epsilon \} \backslash ( - \infty , 0 ]$ near the regular singular point at $z = 0$. 295.1 826.4 501.7 501.7 826.4 795.8 752.1 767.4 811.1 722.6 693.1 833.5 795.8 382.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 272 272 761.6 489.6 777.8 777.8 1000 1000 777.8 777.8 1000 777.8] The leading term $b _ { l0 } ( \operatorname { log } z ) ^ { l } z ^ { \lambda _ { i } }$ is useful as a marker for the different solutions. 777.8 777.8 1000 500 500 777.8 777.8 777.8 777.8 777.8 777.8 777.8 777.8 777.8 777.8 (You should check that zero is really a regular singular point.) Suppose one is given a linear differential operator, \begin{equation} \tag{a1} L = \sum _ { n = 0 } ^ { N } a ^ { [ n ] } ( z ) z ^ { n } \left( \frac { d } { d z } \right) ^ { n }, \end{equation}, where for $n = 0 , \ldots , N$ and some $r > 0$, the functions, \begin{equation} \tag{a2} a ^ { [ n ] } ( z ) = \sum _ { i = 0 } ^ { \infty } a _ { i } ^ { n } z ^ { i } \end{equation}. 500 1000 500 500 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 The method looks simpler in the most common case of a differential operator, \begin{equation} \tag{a9} L = a ^ { [ 2 ] } ( z ) z ^ { 2 } \left( \frac { d } { d z } \right) ^ { 2 } + a ^ { [ 1 ] } ( z ) z \left( \frac { d } { d z } \right) + a ^ { [ 0 ] } ( z ). /FirstChar 33 This is usually the method we use for complicated ordinary differential equations. /Subtype/Type1 n: 2. 767.4 767.4 826.4 826.4 649.3 849.5 694.7 562.6 821.7 560.8 758.3 631 904.2 585.5 413.2 590.3 560.8 767.4 560.8 560.8 472.2 531.3 1062.5 531.3 531.3 531.3 0 0 0 0 Frobenius’ method for curved cracks 63 At the same time the unknowns B i must satisfy the compatibility equations (2.8), which, after linearization, become 1 0 B i dξ=0. /FirstChar 33 also Analytic function). 18 0 obj 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 663.6 885.4 826.4 736.8 384.3 611.1 675.9 351.8 384.3 643.5 351.8 1000 675.9 611.1 675.9 643.5 481.5 488 These solutions are rational functions of $\lambda$ with possible poles at the poles of $c _ { 1 } ( \lambda ) , \ldots , c _ { j - 1} ( \lambda )$ as well as at $\lambda _ { 1 } + j , \ldots , \lambda _ { \nu } + j$. This fact is the basis for the method of Frobenius. << a 0; n= 1;2;:::: (37) In the latter case, the solution y(x) has a closed form expression y(x) = x 15 X1 n=0 ( 1)n 5nn! endobj /FirstChar 33 /Subtype/Type1 \end{equation*}, \begin{equation*} ( \frac { \partial } { \partial \lambda } ) ^ { m _ { j } + l } \left[ u ( z , \lambda ) ( \lambda - \lambda _ { j } ) ^ { m _ { j } } \right] = \end{equation*}, \begin{equation*} = \frac { ( m _ { j } + l ) ! } 875 531.3 531.3 875 849.5 799.8 812.5 862.3 738.4 707.2 884.3 879.6 419 581 880.8 Since the general situation is rather complex, two special cases are given first. /FirstChar 33 In fact Frobenius method is just an extension from the power series method that you add an additional power that may not be an integer to each term in a power series or even add the log term for the assumptions of the solution form of the linear ODEs so that you can find all groups of the linearly independent solutions that in cases of cannot find all groups of the linearly independent solutions … 444.4 611.1 777.8 777.8 777.8 777.8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 /FontDescriptor 26 0 R Computation of the polynomials $p _ { j } (\lambda)$. This is a method that uses the series solution for a differential equation, where we assume the solution takes the form of a series. /Type/Font The other solution takes the form y2(t) = y1(t)lnt + tγ1 + 1 ∞ ∑ n = 0dntn. This article was adapted from an original article by Franz Rothe (originator), which appeared in Encyclopedia of Mathematics - ISBN 1402006098. 380.8 380.8 380.8 979.2 979.2 410.9 514 416.3 421.4 508.8 453.8 482.6 468.9 563.7 638.4 756.7 726.9 376.9 513.4 751.9 613.4 876.9 726.9 750 663.4 750 713.4 550 700 FROBENIUS SERIES SOLUTIONS 5 or a n = a n 1 5n+ 5r+ 1; n= 1;2;:::: (35) Finally, we can use the concrete values r= 1 and r= 1 5. a 0x 495.7 376.2 612.3 619.8 639.2 522.3 467 610.1 544.1 607.2 471.5 576.4 631.6 659.7 /Name/F2 /LastChar 196 Question: Exercise 3. 820.5 796.1 695.6 816.7 847.5 605.6 544.6 625.8 612.8 987.8 713.3 668.3 724.7 666.7 \end{equation}, Here, one has to assume that $a ^ { 2_0 } \neq 0$ to obtain a regular singular point. /Type/Font /FirstChar 33 15 0 obj The Frobenius method has been used very successfully to develop a theory of analytic differential equations, especially for the equations of Fuchsian type, where all singular points assumed to be regular (cf. 2≥ − − =−for n n n a an n. Since we begin our evaluation of anat n= 2, this final recursion relation will yield valid values for an(since the denominator is never zero for .) endobj /Subtype/Type1 1444.4 555.6 1000 1444.4 472.2 472.2 527.8 527.8 527.8 527.8 666.7 666.7 1000 1000 << The cut along some ray is introduced because the solutions $u$ are expected to have an essential singularity at $z = 0$. /Widths[1062.5 531.3 531.3 1062.5 1062.5 1062.5 826.4 1062.5 1062.5 649.3 649.3 1062.5 The easy generic case occurs if the indicial polynomial has only simple zeros and their differences $\lambda _ { i } - \lambda _ { j }$ are never integer valued. /FirstChar 33 The second solution can contain logarithmic terms in the higher powers starting with $( \operatorname { log } z ) z ^ { \lambda _ { 1 } }$. The indicial polynomial is simply, \begin{equation*} \pi ( \lambda ) = ( \lambda + 2 ) ( \lambda + 1 ) a ^ { 2_0 } + ( \lambda + 1 ) a ^ { 1_0 } + a ^ { 0_0 } = \end{equation*}, \begin{equation*} = a ^ { 2 } o ( \lambda - \lambda _ { 1 } ) ( \lambda - \lambda _ { 2 } ). endobj If r1¡r2= 0, the solution basis of the ODE(1)is given by y1(x) =xr1. >> /Type/Font /FontDescriptor 14 0 R 462.4 761.6 734 693.4 707.2 747.8 666.2 639 768.3 734 353.2 503 761.2 611.8 897.2 /Type/Font 888.9 888.9 888.9 888.9 666.7 875 875 875 875 611.1 611.1 833.3 1111.1 472.2 555.6 There is a theorem dealing The Frobenius method is useful for calculating a fundamental system for the homogeneous linear differential equation, \begin{equation} \tag{a3} L ( u ) = 0 \end{equation}. 334 405.1 509.3 291.7 856.5 584.5 470.7 491.4 434.1 441.3 461.2 353.6 557.3 473.4 734 761.6 666.2 761.6 720.6 544 707.2 734 734 1006 734 734 598.4 272 489.6 272 489.6 u ( z ) = z r ∑ k = 0 ∞ A k z k , ( A 0 ≠ 0 ) {\displaystyle u (z)=z^ {r}\sum _ {k=0}^ {\infty }A_ {k}z^ {k},\qquad (A_ {0}\neq 0)} Differentiating: u ′ ( z ) = ∑ k = 0 ∞ ( k + r ) A k z k + r − 1. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 753.7 1000 935.2 831.5 12 0 obj { l ! } Solve the hypergeometric equation around all singularities: 1. x ( 1 − x ) y ″ + { γ − ( 1 + α + β ) x } y ′ − α β y = 0 {\displaystyle x(1-x)y''+\left\{\gamma -(1+\alpha +\beta )x\right\}y'-\alpha \beta y=0} There is at least one Frobenius solution, in each case. << The coefficients have to be calculated by requiring that, \begin{equation} \tag{a7} L ( u ( z , \lambda ) ) = \pi ( \lambda ) z ^ { \lambda }. The point $z = 0$ is called a regular singular point of $L$. The European Mathematical Society. Frobenius Method If is an ordinary point of the ordinary differential equation, expand in a Taylor series about. /Type/Font The approach does produce special separatrix-type solutions for the Emden–Fowler equation, where the non-linear term contains only powers. 2n 2, so Frobenius’ method fails. endobj 4 Named after the German mathematician Ferdinand Georg Frobenius (1849 – 1917). 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 272 272 272 761.6 462.4 652.8 598 0 0 757.6 622.8 552.8 507.9 433.7 395.4 427.7 483.1 456.3 346.1 563.7 571.2 If q=r1¡r2is not integer, then the solution basis of the ODE(1)is given by y1(x) =xr1. /Subtype/Type1 30 0 obj 38 0 obj endobj Section 8.4 The Frobenius Method 467 where the coefficients a n are determined as in Case (a), and the coefficients α n are found by substituting y(x) = y 2(x) into the differential equation. The method of Frobenius works for differential equations of the form y00 +P(x)y0 +Q(x)y=0 in which P or Q is not analytic at the point of expansion x 0. /LastChar 196 are holomorphic for $| z | < r$ and $a ^ { N_ 0} \neq 0$ (cf. /Widths[342.6 581 937.5 562.5 937.5 875 312.5 437.5 437.5 562.5 875 312.5 375 312.5 www.springer.com Method of Frobenius Example First Solution Second Solution (Fails) What is the Method of Frobenius? /Type/Font Let $1 \leq j \leq \nu$ and let $\lambda _ { i }$ be a zero of the indicial polynomial of multiplicity $n_i$ for $i = 1 , \dots , j - 1$. 1000 1000 1055.6 1055.6 1055.6 777.8 666.7 666.7 450 450 450 450 777.8 777.8 0 0 /Widths[609.7 458.2 577.1 808.9 505 354.2 641.4 979.2 979.2 979.2 979.2 272 272 489.6 We classify a point x The method of Frobenius is to seek a power series solution of the form. Commonly, the expansion point can be taken as, resulting in the Maclaurin series (1) Using The Frobenius Method, Find The General Solution In All Cases Of The Parameters Of The So-called Hypergeometric Equation At The Point X = 0, Given By (1 – 2)y" + [7 - (a +B+1)x]y – Aby = 0, 0,B,9 € C Check That The Solutions Are Written In Terms Of The Hypergeometric Gaus- Sian Function, Defined As F(Q.B;; 2) = (a)k(3)k 24 X endobj with $\lambda = \lambda _ { 2 }$ in the second function, are two linearly independent solutions of the differential equation (a9). 450 500 300 300 450 250 800 550 500 500 450 412.5 400 325 525 450 650 450 475 400 << In the Frobenius method one examines whether the equation (2) allows a series solution of the form. 833.3 1444.4 1277.8 555.6 1111.1 1111.1 1111.1 1111.1 1111.1 944.4 1277.8 555.6 1000 To differentiate between normal power series solution and Frobenius Method 2 Does the Frobenius method work for all second order linear differential equations with only regular singular points? The next two theorems will enable us to develop systematic methods for finding Frobenius solutions of ( eq:7.5.2 ). This is the extensive document regarding the Frobenius Method. 593.8 500 562.5 1125 562.5 562.5 562.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 562.5 562.5 562.5 562.5 562.5 562.5 562.5 562.5 562.5 562.5 562.5 312.5 312.5 342.6 Complications can arise if the generic assumption made above is not satisfied. \end{equation*}. 1062.5 1062.5 826.4 288.2 1062.5 708.3 708.3 944.5 944.5 0 0 590.3 590.3 708.3 531.3 >> /Widths[1000 500 500 1000 1000 1000 777.8 1000 1000 611.1 611.1 1000 1000 1000 777.8 endobj also Fuchsian equation). The functions, \begin{equation*} u ( z , \lambda _ { 1 } ) = z ^ { \lambda _ { 1 } } + \ldots, \end{equation*}, \begin{equation*} \frac { \partial u } { \partial \lambda } ( z , \lambda _ { 1 } ) = ( \operatorname { log } z ) z ^ { \lambda _ { 1 } } \end{equation*}, 2) $\lambda _ { 1 } - \lambda _ { 2 } \in \mathbf{N}$. >> Case (d) Complex conjugate roots If c 1 = λ+iμ and c 2 = λ−iμ with μ = 0, then in the intervals −d < x < 0 and 0 < x < d the two linearly independent solutions of the differential equation are One gets $L _ { 0 } ( u ^ { \lambda } ) = \pi ( \lambda ) z ^ { \lambda }$ with the indicial polynomial, \begin{equation} \tag{a5} \pi ( \lambda ) = \sum _ { n = 0 } ^ { N } ( \lambda + n ) ( \lambda + n - 1 ) \ldots ( \lambda + 1 ) a ^ { n _0} = \end{equation}, \begin{equation*} = a _ { 0 } ^ { N } \prod _ { i = 1 } ^ { \nu } ( \lambda - \lambda _ { i } ) ^ { n _ { i } }. /Widths[272 489.6 816 489.6 816 761.6 272 380.8 380.8 489.6 761.6 272 326.4 272 489.6 n≥2. /BaseFont/XKICMY+CMSY10 /BaseFont/BPIREE+CMR6 /Subtype/Type1 << 812.5 875 562.5 1018.5 1143.5 875 312.5 562.5] endobj \end{equation}, This requirement leads to $c _ { 0 } \equiv 1$ and, \begin{equation} \tag{a8} c _ { j } ( \lambda ) = - \sum _ { k = 0 } ^ { j - 1 } \frac { c _ { k } ( \lambda ) p _ { j - k } ( \lambda + k ) } { \pi ( \lambda + j ) } \end{equation}. An infinite series of the form in (9) is called a Frobenius series. 2 Frobenius Series Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations At the start of the differential equation section of the 1B21 course last year, you met the linear first-order separable equation dy dx = αy , (2.1) where α is a constant. Suppose $\lambda _ { 1 } - \lambda _ { 2 } \in \mathbf{N}$. Because for $i = 1 , \dots , \nu$ and $l = 0 , \dots , n _ { i } - 1$, all leading terms are different, the method of Frobenius does indeed yield a fundamental system of $N$ linearly independent solutions of the differential equation (a3). 324.7 531.3 531.3 531.3 531.3 531.3 795.8 472.2 531.3 767.4 826.4 531.3 958.7 1076.8 You were also shown how to integrate the equation to … >> \end{equation*}. 27 0 obj 791.7 777.8] 761.6 679.6 652.8 734 707.2 761.6 707.2 761.6 0 0 707.2 571.2 544 544 816 816 272 Consider roots r1;r2of the indicial equation(3). /FontDescriptor 32 0 R For instance, with r= 545.5 825.4 663.6 972.9 795.8 826.4 722.6 826.4 781.6 590.3 767.4 795.8 795.8 1091 699.9 556.4 477.4 454.9 312.5 377.9 623.4 489.6 272 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 << 351.8 611.1 611.1 611.1 611.1 611.1 611.1 611.1 611.1 611.1 611.1 611.1 351.8 351.8 Case I: Two equal roots If the indicial equation has two equal roots, γ1 = γ2, we have one solution of the form y1(t) = tγ1 ∞ ∑ n = 0cntn. \begin{equation*} ( \frac { \partial } { \partial \lambda } ) ^ { n _ { 1 } + l } [ u ( z , \lambda ) ( \lambda - \lambda _ { 2 } ) ^ { n _ { 1 } } ] = \end{equation*}, \begin{equation*} = \frac { ( n _ { 1 } + l ) ! } 947.3 784.1 748.3 631.1 775.5 745.3 602.2 573.9 665 570.8 924.4 812.6 568.1 670.2 An adaption of the Frobenius method to non-linear problems is restricted to exceptional cases. /FontDescriptor 8 0 R 720.1 807.4 730.7 1264.5 869.1 841.6 743.3 867.7 906.9 643.4 586.3 662.8 656.2 1054.6 /Name/F3 Under these assumptions, the $N$ functions, \begin{equation*} u ( z , \lambda _ { 1 } ) = z ^ { \lambda _ { 1 } } + \ldots , \ldots , u ( z , \lambda _ { N } ) = z ^ { \lambda _ { N } } +\dots \end{equation*}. 384.3 611.1 611.1 611.1 611.1 611.1 896.3 546.3 611.1 870.4 935.2 611.1 1077.8 1207.4 /FirstChar 33 687.5 312.5 581 312.5 562.5 312.5 312.5 546.9 625 500 625 513.3 343.8 562.5 625 312.5 n; y2(x) =xr2. 1111.1 1511.1 1111.1 1511.1 1111.1 1511.1 1055.6 944.4 472.2 833.3 833.3 833.3 833.3 Regular and Irregular Singularities As seen in the preceding example, there are situations in which it is not possible to use Frobenius’ method to obtain a series solution. The method of Frobenius starts with the guess, \begin{equation} \tag{a6} u ( z , \lambda ) = z ^ { \lambda } \sum _ { k = 0 } ^ { \infty } c _ { k } ( \lambda ) z ^ { k }, \end{equation}, with an undetermined parameter $\lambda \in \mathbf{C}$. >> /Name/F8 756.4 705.8 763.6 708.3 708.3 708.3 708.3 708.3 649.3 649.3 472.2 472.2 472.2 472.2 Frobenius Method ( All three Cases ) - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Indeed (a1) and (a2) imply, \begin{equation*} L ( u ( z , \lambda ) ) = \end{equation*}, \begin{equation*} = [ \sum _ { i = 0 } ^ { \infty } \sum _ { n = 0 } ^ { N } a _ { i } ^ { n } z ^ { n + i } ( \frac { \partial } { \partial z } ) ^ { n } ] [ \sum _ { k = 0 } ^ { \infty } c _ { k } ( \lambda ) z ^ { \lambda + k } ] = \end{equation*}, \begin{equation*} = \sum _ { i = 0 } ^ { \infty } \sum _ { k = 0 } ^ { \infty } c _ { k } ( \lambda ) z ^ { i } \sum _ { n = 0 } ^ { N } a _ { i } ^ { n } z ^ { n } \left( \frac { \partial } { \partial z } \right) ^ { n } z ^ { \lambda + k } = \end{equation*}, \begin{equation*} = \sum _ { i = 0 } ^ { \infty } \sum _ { k = 0 } ^ { \infty } c _ { k } ( \lambda ) z ^ { i } p _ { i } ( \lambda + k ) z ^ { \lambda + k } = \end{equation*}, \begin{equation*} = z ^ { \lambda } \sum _ { j = 0 } ^ { \infty } z ^ { j } \left[ \sum _ { i + k = j } c _ { k } ( \lambda ) p _ { i } ( \lambda + k ) \right] = \end{equation*}, \begin{equation*} = c _ { 0 } z ^ { \lambda } \pi ( \lambda ) + \end{equation*}, \begin{equation*} + z ^ { \lambda } \sum _ { j = 1 } ^ { \infty } z ^ { j } \left[ c _ { j } ( \lambda ) \pi ( \lambda + j ) + \sum _ { k = 0 } ^ { j - 1 } c _ { k } ( \lambda ) p _ { j - k } ( \lambda + k ) \right]. /BaseFont/SHKLKE+CMEX10 This case is an example of a CASE III equation where the method of Frobenius will yield both solutions to the differential equation. Example 3: x = 0 is an irregular point of the flrst order equation Ly = x2y0 +y = 0 The solution of this flrst order linear equation can be obtained by means of … 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 642.9 885.4 806.2 736.8 This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 22:42. 826.4 295.1 531.3] 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 300 300 300 750 500 500 750 726.9 688.4 700 738.4 663.4 /FirstChar 33 531.3 826.4 826.4 826.4 826.4 0 0 826.4 826.4 826.4 1062.5 531.3 531.3 826.4 826.4 /BaseFont/KNRCDC+CMMI12 295.1 826.4 531.3 826.4 531.3 559.7 795.8 801.4 757.3 871.7 778.7 672.4 827.9 872.8 /FirstChar 33 33 0 obj /Subtype/Type1 x��ZYo�6~�_�G5�fx�������d���yh{d[�ni"�q�_�U$����c�N���E�Y������(�4�����ٗ����i�Yvq�qbTV.���ɿ[�w��`:�`�ȿo��{�XJ��7��}׷��jj?�o���UW��k�Mp��/���� << 472.2 472.2 472.2 472.2 583.3 583.3 0 0 472.2 472.2 333.3 555.6 577.8 577.8 597.2 491.3 383.7 615.2 517.4 762.5 598.1 525.2 494.2 349.5 400.2 673.4 531.3 295.1 0 0 In this case, define $m_j$ to be the sum of those multiplicities for which $\lambda _ { i } - \lambda _ { j } \in \mathbf{N}$. /Widths[351.8 611.1 1000 611.1 1000 935.2 351.8 481.5 481.5 611.1 935.2 351.8 416.7 Section 1.1 Frobenius Method In this section, we consider a method to find a general solution to a second order ODE about a singular point, written in either of the two equivalent forms below: \begin{equation} x^2 y'' + xb(x)y' + c(x) y = 0\label{frobenius-standard-form1}\tag{1.1.1} \end{equation} \end{equation*}, 1) $\lambda _ { 1 } = \lambda _ { 2 }$. \end{equation*}, In the following, the zeros $\lambda _ { i }$ of the indicial polynomial will be ordered by requiring, \begin{equation*} \operatorname { Re } \lambda _ { 1 } \geq \ldots \geq \operatorname { Re } \lambda _ { \nu }. 9 0 obj << /Type/Font An adaption of the Frobenius method to non-linear problems is restricted to exceptional cases. If r 1 −r 2 ∈ Z, then both r = r 1 and r = r 2 yield (linearly independent) solutions. /FontDescriptor 23 0 R 1. 300 325 500 500 500 500 500 814.8 450 525 700 700 500 863.4 963.4 750 250 500] How to Calculate Coe cients in the Hard Cases L. Nielsen, Ph.D. However, the method of Frobenius can be extended to the case where , , and are functions that can be represented by power series in on some interval that contains zero, and . \end{equation*}, Here, $p _ { i } ( \lambda )$ are polynomials of degree at most $N$ determined by setting, \begin{equation*} p _ { i } ( z ) z ^ { \lambda } = \sum _ { n = 0 } ^ { N } a ^ { n _ { i } } z ^ { n } ( \frac { \partial } { \partial z } ) ^ { n } z ^ { \lambda }. This method enables one to compute a fundamental system of solutions for a holomorphic differential equation near a regular singular point (cf. /Type/Font 1277.8 811.1 811.1 875 875 666.7 666.7 666.7 666.7 666.7 666.7 888.9 888.9 888.9 /Filter[/FlateDecode] /BaseFont/NPKUUX+CMMI8 597.2 736.1 736.1 527.8 527.8 583.3 583.3 583.3 583.3 750 750 750 750 1044.4 1044.4 544 516.8 380.8 386.2 380.8 544 516.8 707.2 516.8 516.8 435.2 489.6 979.2 489.6 489.6 Let y=Ún=0 ¥a xn+r. 896.3 896.3 740.7 351.8 611.1 351.8 611.1 351.8 351.8 611.1 675.9 546.3 675.9 546.3 >> 531.3 531.3 413.2 413.2 295.1 531.3 531.3 649.3 531.3 295.1 885.4 795.8 885.4 443.6 Application of Frobenius’ method In order to solve (3.5), (3.6) we start from a plausible representation of B x,B y that is 675.9 1067.1 879.6 844.9 768.5 844.9 839.1 625 782.4 864.6 849.5 1162 849.5 849.5 1062.5 826.4] /Subtype/Type1 /LastChar 196 << P1 n=0anx. as a recursion formula for $c_{j}$ for all $j \geq 1$. /Subtype/Type1 /LastChar 196 The poles are compensated for by multiplying $u ( z , \lambda )$ at first with powers of $\lambda - \lambda _ { i }$ and differentiation by the parameter $\lambda$ before setting $\lambda = \lambda _ { i }$. • Back to Frobenius method for second solutions in three cases –n = = 0, the double root – Integer = n 0, roots differ by an integer, J-n(x) = (-1)nJ n(x) – Non-integer , easiest case, J and J- are two linearly independent solutions • General case for second solution [0,1] 2( ln() m m n 611.1 798.5 656.8 526.5 771.4 527.8 718.7 594.9 844.5 544.5 677.8 762 689.7 1200.9 also Singular point). The solution of the … /LastChar 196 708.3 795.8 767.4 826.4 767.4 826.4 0 0 767.4 619.8 590.3 590.3 885.4 885.4 295.1 Introduction The “na¨ıve” Frobenius method The general Frobenius method Remarks Under the hypotheses of the theorem, we say that a = 0 is a regular singular point of the ODE. %PDF-1.2 \begin{equation*} u ( z , \lambda _ { i } ) = z ^ { \lambda _ { i } } + \ldots , \end{equation*}, \begin{equation*} \frac { \partial } { \partial \lambda } u ( z , \lambda _ { i } ) = ( \operatorname { log } z ) z ^ { \lambda_i } +\dots \dots \end{equation*}, \begin{equation*} \left( \frac { \partial } { \partial \lambda } \right) ^ { ( n _ { i } - 1 ) } u ( z , \lambda _ { i } ) = ( \operatorname { log } z ) ^ { n _ { i } - 1 } z ^ { \lambda _ { i } } +\dots \end{equation*}. 295.1 531.3 531.3 531.3 531.3 531.3 531.3 531.3 531.3 531.3 531.3 531.3 295.1 295.1 783.4 872.8 823.4 619.8 708.3 654.8 0 0 816.7 682.4 596.2 547.3 470.1 429.5 467 533.2 >> >> /Widths[300 500 800 755.2 800 750 300 400 400 500 750 300 350 300 500 500 500 500 The functions, \begin{equation*} ( \frac { \partial } { \partial \lambda } ) [ u ( z , \lambda ) ( \lambda - \lambda _ { 2 } ) ] = z ^ { \lambda_2 } + \ldots , \end{equation*}. /Name/F7 /FontDescriptor 17 0 R SINGULAR POINTS AND THE METHOD OF FROBENIUS 291 AseachlinearcombinationofJp(x)andJ−p(x)isasolutiontoBessel’sequationoforderp,thenas wetakethelimitaspgoeston,Yn(x)isasolutiontoBessel’sequationofordern.Italsoturnsout thatYn(x)andJn(x)arelinearlyindependent.Thereforewhennisaninteger,wehavethegeneral 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 606.7 816 748.3 679.6 728.7 811.3 765.8 571.2 /LastChar 196 /BaseFont/LQKHRU+CMSY8 295.1 531.3 531.3 531.3 531.3 531.3 531.3 531.3 531.3 531.3 531.3 531.3 531.3 295.1 Hence, \begin{equation*} m _ { j } = \sum \{ n _ { i } : 1 \leq i < j \ \text{ and } \ \lambda _ { i } - \lambda _ { j } \in \mathbf{N} \}. Because of (a7), one finds $c _ { 0 } \equiv 1$ and the recursion formula (a8). /Name/F5 ( \operatorname { log } z ) ^ { l } z ^ { \lambda _ { 2 } } + \ldots, \end{equation*}. View Notes - Lecture 5 - Frobenius Step by Step from ESE 319 at Washington University in St. Louis. Suppose the roots of the indicial equation are r 1 and r 2. 761.6 272 489.6] /Type/Font 5 See Joseph L. Neuringera, The Frobenius method for complex roots of the indicial equation, International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, Volume 9, Issue 1, 1978, 71–77. https://encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php?title=Frobenius_method&oldid=50967, R. Redheffer, "Differential equations, theory and applications" , Jones and Bartlett (1991), F. Rothe, "A variant of Frobenius' method for the Emden–Fowler equation", D. Zwillinger, "Handbook of differential equations" , Acad. /FirstChar 33 ACM95b/100b Lecture Notes Caltech 2004 351.8 935.2 578.7 578.7 935.2 896.3 850.9 870.4 915.7 818.5 786.1 941.7 896.3 442.6 Method of Frobenius: The Exceptional Cases Now, we have to take a look at what happens when r 1 − r 2 is an integer. For any $i = 1 , \dots , \nu$, the zero $\lambda _ { i }$ of the indicial polynomial has multiplicity $n _ { i } \geq 1$, but none of the numbers $\lambda _ { 1 } - \lambda _ { i } , \ldots , \lambda _ { i - 1 } - \lambda _ { i }$ is a natural number. Here, $\epsilon > 0$, and for an equation in normal form, actually $\epsilon \geq r$. 0 0 0 613.4 800 750 676.9 650 726.9 700 750 700 750 0 0 700 600 550 575 862.5 875 694.5 295.1] 343.8 593.8 312.5 937.5 625 562.5 625 593.8 459.5 443.8 437.5 625 593.8 812.5 593.8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 826.4 295.1 826.4 531.3 826.4 named for the German mathematician Georg Frobenius (1848—19 17), who discovered the method in the 1870s. ���ů�f4[rI�[��l�rC\�7 ����Kn���&��͇�u����#V�Z*NT�&�����m�º��Wx�9�������U]�Z��l�۲.��u���7(���"Z�^d�MwK=�!2��jQ&3I�pݔ��HXE�͖��. German mathematician Georg Frobenius ( 1848—19 17 ), which appeared in Encyclopedia Mathematics... Zero is really a regular singular point. roots are different and one denotes their by... Originator ), which appeared in Encyclopedia of Mathematics - ISBN 1402006098 singular at t = 0 $ (.... Georg Frobenius ( 1848—19 17 ), which could not be captured by a Frobenius series German Georg. 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